New Studies

At this place we inform you about new studies and interesting thoughts:


1. Charles A. Kallick “Could ehrlichial infection cause some of the changes associated with leukemia, myelodysplastic diseases and autoimmune disorders, and offer antibiotic treatment options?”, Medical Hypothesis 85 (2015) 891-893

2. Turhan Canli: “Reconceptualizing major depressive disorder as an infectious disease”, Biology of Moods & Anxiety Disorders, 2014, 4:10;

3. A new review article: Priya Maheshwari and Guy Eslick: “Bacterial Infection and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis”, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 43 (2015) 957-966, doi 10.3233/JAD-140621

4. Herbert B. Allen, Diego Morales, Krister Jones and Suresh Joshi: Alzheimer‘s Disease: A Novel Hypothesis Integrating Spirochetes, Biofilm, and the Immun System ; J Neuroinfect Dis 2016, 7:1,
5. A new case report: Amir Garakani and Andrew G. Mitton: “New-Onset Panic, Depression with Suicidal Thoughts, and Somatic Symptoms in a Patient with a History of Lyme Disease”, Case Reports in Psychiatry, Volume 2015, Article ID 457947, 4 pages;


6. This study (2015) shows that also a dramatically (fatality) course can happen in Lyme Disease:

Yoon E, Vail E, Kleinman G, Lento PA, Li S, Wang G, Limberger R, Fallon JT, Lyme disease: A case report of a 17-year old male with fatal Lyme carditis, Cardiovascular Pathology (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2015.03.003

Comment: It is very good that someone has even considered about looking for Lyme disease (in the tissue of the heart) and has also thought of Borrelia. Here the direct proof is possible as it is in the tissue where the bacteria is seated. Thus we all are able to learn.

How many autopsies (postmortem examinations), also on adult patients, take place with this posing of question?  What about the so far generally statement, that Borrelia does not lead to deaths?How many times was this investigated so far?


7. In 2015 the first study published, which indicates that even in Lyme disease a combination antibiotic therapy might not entirely outlandish. Clinically studies are now necessary to find out which is the best combination in humans. That persister forms also in vivo exist you can find in the chapter “biofilms”

Feng J, Auwaerter PG, Zhang Y (2015):”Drug Combinations against Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters In Vitro: Eradication Achieved by Using Daptomycin, Cefoperazone and Doxycycline”. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117207. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0117207

Jie Feng, Megan Weitner, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang and Ying Zhang: Eradication of Biofilm-Like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi  by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime, 2016, Microbiol. 7:62. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00062


8. The classical way of transmission of Lyme disease is the tick. Are further ways of transmission possible? Is it possible that other human-pathogenic borrelia strains and the co-infections (e.g. bartonella, babesia or rickettsia) can be transmitted by blood transfusion as well?


  • Krause Peter J et al.: Blood transfusion transmission oft he tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in mice, Transfusion. 2014 Aug 6. Doi 10.1111/trf.12879.


  • Shields K et al.: Transfusion-associated Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a pregnant patient with thalassemia trait: a case report. Transfusion. 2014 Nov 11. Doi: 10.1111/trf. 12908.


  • Gabitzsch Elizabeth S et al.: Transfer of Borrelia Burgdorferi s.s. Infection via Blood Transfusion in a Murine Model; J. Parasitol., 92(4), 2006, pp. 869-870.


  • Middelveen MJ, Burke J, Sapi E et al. Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions [v3; ref status: approved 1, not approved 2,] F1000Research, 3:309 (doi:)



9.  Are there further vectors for Lyme disease or co-infections exist?


  • Literak et al.: Larvae of chigger mites Neotrombicula spp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) exhibited Borrelia but no Anaplasma infections: a field study including birds from Czech Carpathians as hosts of chiggers, Exp Appl Acarol. 2008 Apr; 44(4):307-14.doi 10.1007/s10493-008-9150-1. Epub 2008 Apri 10.


  • Osterhoudt KC et al.: Lyme disease masquerading as brown recluse spider bite, Ann Emerg Med. 2002 May; 39(5):558-61.


  • Magnarelli, (1986) The etiologic agent of LD in Deer Flies, Horse Flies and Mosquitoes. J Inf Dis. 54(2) p.355 ff.


  • Magnarelli, (1988) Ticks and Biting Insects with the Etiologic Agent of L. Dis. Borrelia Burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1482-86.


  • Halouzka J, Wilske B, Stunzner D, Sanogo YO, Hubalek Z. Halouza (1998) Isolation of B.afzelii from the mosquito Aedes vexans in Czech Republic. Med Vet Entomol 12(1), 103-5.


  • Kosik-Bogacka D, Bukowska K, Kuzna-Grygiel W. (1999) Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes. Infection 27(4-5), 275-7.


  • Stig Hard S, (2001) Erythema Chronicum Migrans (Afzelii) Associated With Mosquito Bite. Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases. 8(1), 28-30.


  • Faulde et al.(2001) „Vorkommen und Verhütung vektor-assoziierter Erkrankungen des Menschen in Deutschland unter Berücksichtigung zoonotischer Aspekte“ Bundesgesundheitsblatt (2), 4, 921-93.


  • Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in mosquitoes (Culicidae) in recreational areas of the city of Szczecin. Ann Agric Environ Med. (2002), 9(1), 55.


  • Netusil J, Zakowska A, Vostal K et al. (2013) The occurrence of Borrelia Burgdorferi sensu lato in certain ektoparasites (Mesostigmata, Siphonaptera) of Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus in chosen localities in the Czech Republic. Acta Parasitologica 58(3), 337-341.



10.  What‘s new in Australia?

  • Alexander W. Gofton, Doggett S, Ratchford A, Oskam CL, Paparini A, Ryan U, et al. (2015): Barcterial Profiling Reveals Novel “Ca. Neoehrlichia”, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks, PLoS ONE 10(12): e0145449. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0145449 – Click here!


  • Mayne P. et al.: Evidence for Ixodes holocyclus (Acarina: Ixodidae) as a Vector for Human Lyme Borreliosis Infection in Australia; Journal of Insect Science 14(271): 2014; DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/ieu133.


  • Barker Stephen C. et al.: A list of the 70 species of Australian ticks; diagnostic guides to and species accounts of Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern parpalysis tick) and Rhipicephalus australis (Australian cattle tick); and consideration of the place of Australia in the evolution of ticks with comments on four controversial ideas; International Journal for Parasitology 44 (2014) 941-953.


  • Mayne, Peter J.: Clinical determinants of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis in an Australian cohort; International Journal of General Medicin 2015:8 15-26



11. Further and new studies about Co-Infections (see also chapter “comments and professional opinion”):

  • Vayssier-Taussat Muriel et al: Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France; Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Mar [date cited].


  • Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Nicholson WL, Cherry NA, Woods CW: Bartonella sp. Bacteremia in Patients with Neurological and Neurocognitive Dysfunction; Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 46(9):2856–2861.


  • Mascarelli PE, Maggi RG, Hopkins S, Mozayeni BR, Trull CL, Brandly JM, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites; Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:98 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-98.


  • Maggi RG, Ericson M, Mascarello PE, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure; Parasites & Vectors, April 2013, 6:101 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-101.



12.  The importance of vector-borne diseases at the military: an overview of infections in soldiers of different armies from the World War I. until now.